Pain killers, or analgesics is a group of drugs with different chemical structures that have an analgesic(pain relief) effect. Pain killers are divided in 2 big groups narcotic and non-narcotic analgesics which are also called (NSAIDs) – derivatives of salicylic acid, pyrazolone, aniline, indole, which have antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects; acetylsalicylic acid, ketorolac, ibuprofen and other drugs in this group are used o relieve muscular and joint pain, neuralgia, headache, dental pain, but they are ineffective for severe pain caused by trauma or spasm of the smooth muscles. Unlike the narcotic analgesics, anesthetics, narcotics, non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs do not affect mental functions, the activities of cough and respiratory centers, do not have the hypnotic effect, do not cause addiction.
Up-to-date non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are conditionally classified in 3 main groups:
- NSAIDs with a strong anti-inflammatory activity
- salicylates (ASA, diflunisal)
- indoleacetic acid derivatives (indometacin)
- phenylacetic acid derivatives (diclofenac)
- oxicams (meloxicam, etc.)
- alkanones (nabumetone)
- propionic acid derivatives (ibuprofen, etc.)
- sulfonanilides (nimesulide)
- Coformulated drugs
- NSAIDs with mild anti-inflammatory activity
- anthranilic acid derivatives
- para-aminophenol derivatives (paracetamol)
- heteroaryl acetic acid derivatives
The main thing in the analgesics administration is not to forget that it is necessary to identify and eliminate the causes of pain. In many diseases painkillers are not needed at all. Thus, menstrual pain and intestinal colic are often eliminated by antispasmodic drugs – for example, No-spa. Pain in the gut due to accumulation of gases is effectively relieved by Simethicone.
In the case of chest pain, vasodilators (nitroglycerin) should be taken. If discomfort is associated with diseases of esophagus and stomach, antacids are the best remedy to relieve pain. Headaches associated with high blood pressure should be relieved by antihypertensive medications.